To a census-taker, who asked him in 1872 if he was a Catholic, Hugo replied, "No. A Freethinker." Hugo predicted that Christianity would soon disappear, but men would still believe in God.
Though educated in Catholic schools, and pressed to serve in Korea, “it's worth noting that by the age of 20 [Altman] had resisted two of the most powerful institutions - church and army, both. He is an atheist.”